Money Matters (2)

You keep it in your pockets every day, you spend it, you worry about it, but what or who exactly is depicted on these bills? Time to find out. This post deals with 5000 and 10,000 Yen, readers who want to know more about 1000 and 2000 Yen should check out my previous post

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This lady is Higuchi Natsuko 樋口夏子 (household name Natsu 奈津), but widely known as Higuchi Ichiyō 樋口 一葉, her pen name. Higuchi was born in 1872 in Tokyo and died of tuberculosis at the very young age of 24. She was one of the most influential writers during the Meiji period (1868-1912) and the first woman to make it as a writer in modern Japan. Her work is characterized by an elegant use of language, reflecting Heian literature, mixed with a modern sensibility.

As a little girl, Natsuko loved picture books and she started reading literature at the age of seven. Because her mother considered education unnecessary for girls, Natsuko dropped out of school when she was 9 years old. But Natsuko’s father realised her literary talent and allowed her five years later to take classical poetry lessons at the famous academy Haginoya 萩の舎. There, she also gave lectures as a teaching assistant. Nevertheless, she was treated as a commoner by the rich kids at the academy because of her low rank. Eventually, Natsuko became very introverted and wrestled with an inferiority complex.

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at Haginoya

The Higuchi family - Golddust

The Higuchi family – Golddust

From that point on, the Higuchi family’s life turned into a tragedy. When Natsuko was 19, her father lost everything in a failed business enterprise and died shortly after that. Natsuko became head of the family – unusual for a woman at that time – and she, her mother and her sister desperately tried to meet the ends by doing all kinds of odd jobs, like house-keeping, needlework, weaving sandals and laundry chores. It is said, however, that Natsuko despised this kind of labor and was therefore looking for another source of income. Inspired by a female class mate who published a successful novel, she decided to become a writer.  Natsuko choose “Higuchi Ichiyō” as her pen name and wrote her first novel Kareobana hitomoto かれ尾花一もと (“Withered silver grass”) at the age of twenty.

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Nakarai Tosui

In 1891, she was introduced to journalist and novelist Nakarai Tōsui 半井桃水. Ichiyō became his pupil and with his help and advice, she managed to publish her short stories in some magazines. From her diary, we know that Ichiyō had a crush on the tall, handsome and gentle widower Nakarai, but unfortunately her love was not returned. On the contrary, her mentor turned out to be an infamous womanizer. As a female writer in the male-dominated world of literature, Ichiyō was often the topic of rumours and speculations about her love life. She would never marry, but broke off her engagement due to money problems and turned her ex-fiance down the second time he proposed. 

51Y62QACTHL._SX332_BO1,204,203,200_Luckily, she had more success with writing. Her break-through came with the publication of Umoregi うもれ木 (“Buried wood”). Ichiyō wrote stories for the famous lit-magazines Bungakukai 文學界and Miyako no Hana 都の花 and her talent was soon acknowledged by prominent Meiji writers. Economically, however, the Higuchi family was not in a good shape and they had to move to the Yoshiwara district, a poor neighbourhood and infamous as a pleasure quarter. This environment served as a setting for one of Ichiyō’s masterpieces, Takekurabe たけくらべ (“comparing statures” often translated as “Child’s play”). Ichiyō opened a variety shop, but closed it the same year, after which the family moved again. Between December 1894 and February 1896, her so-called “14 miraculous months”, she published 10 works of outstanding quality. After that, she only wrote one more work before she was diagnosed with tuberculosis. She died three months later. Higuchi Ichiyō, the most famous female writer of the Meiji period lived in poverty, but her image will make you rich. Ironic isn’t it?

5000yen_backThe reverse side of a 5000 Yen bill is inspired by a painting on a wall screen by Ogata Kōrin (1658 – 1716). The flowers on the left side are irises 杜若 (kakitsubata). Irises have been considered “classical plants for gardening” since the Edo period and stand out because of their purplish blue color and speckled light yellow interior. The irises screen is a National Treasure of Japan.

Irises_screen_2

Fun Fact The Tales of Ise (Ise monogatari 『伊勢物語』) mentions the prefecture of Aichi as a famous place for irises. The story goes that the protagonist composes the following poem when he and his companions are enjoying the view of an iris marsh from a bridge. The first syllables of every line together form the Japanese word for iris.

ら衣                karagoromo                 I have a beloved wife
つつなれにし   kitsutsu narenishi         Familiar as the skirt
ましあれば      tsuma shi areba           Of a well-worn robe
るばる来ぬる  harubaru kinuru           And so this distant journeying
びをしぞ思ふ   tabi wo shi zo omou     Fills my heart with grief
(translation by McCullough)

References Wikipedia Jp, Wikipedia Eng, Copeland, Rebecca, and Melek Ortabasi. The Modern Murasaki: Writing by Women of Meiji Japan. Asia Perspectives: History, Society and Culture. Columbia University Press, 2006, Jaanus.

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Finally, we have arrived at the highest bank-note denomination. The 10,000 Yen bill was first introduced in 1957 and portrays Fukuzawa Yukichi 福沢 諭吉 (1835-1901), engraved by Oshikiri Katsuzō, since 1984. Japanese people often refer to the 10,000 Yen bill as “Yukichi”. Fukuzawa was a versatile man. He was a writer, teacher, translator, entrepreneur, journalist, liberal ideologist and Enlightenment thinker. He is often called “the Japanese Voltaire” and “one of the founders of modern Japan”. Without doubt, Fukuzawa has played an important role in the transition from the Edo period (1603-1868) into the Meiji period (1868-1912), when Japan made an end to its feudal system, opened up its ports for foreign trade and underwent a drastic modernization.

FukuzawaYukichiFukuzawa grew up in a low-ranking samurai family in Osaka. From the age of five, he received schooling in Confucianism and Chinese classics. It was soon clear he was a gifted student and at the age of 19, he went to Nagasaki to study Dutch. At that time, Dutch merchants were the only Europeans allowed on Japanese soil, more specifically on Dejima, an artificial island in the bay of Nagasaki. The Japanese were particularly interested in European warfare and artillery, and because they prohibited the Dutchmen to study Japanese, official translators were employed to communicate with and learn about the West (the study of Dutch is called rangaku 蘭学). Although his study in Nagasaki was succesful, his host got envious of his talent and tried to send him away. This attempt failed, but Fukuzawa decided to travel to Edo nevertheless. When he stopped by his family on the road there, his brother persuaded him to complete his study of Dutch in Osaka at Tekijuku 適塾.

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The Dutch-Japanese Doeff-Halma Dictionary

In 1856, his elder brother died (his father passed away a long time before) and Fukuzawa became head of the family. Nevertheless, he did not give up studying. To pay his school fees, he successfully translated a Dutch book about fortification as a military strategy and was rewarded free housing and schooling at Tekijuku. There, he mastered the Dutch language in three years and became head teacher at the age of 22. Apart from studying Dutch, Fukuzawa was also interested in the topics introduced in these Dutch books, untill then unknown subjects to Japan such as chemistry and medicine (although he could not stand the sight of blood). In 1858, he was appointed official Dutch translator and sent to Edo (Tokyo today) as a teacher. There, he founded a small, private rangaku school.

The end of Japan’s “splendid isolation” drew near with the arrival of the “black ships” of the American Commodore Perry. Japan signed a treaty with the United States and opened three of its ports to European and American ships in 1859. During a trip to Kanagawa to see the arrival of the foreign ships, Fukuzawa was baffled by the fact that all foreigners used English instead of Dutch. So he started learning English. The same year, he volunteered to be part of a diplomatic mission to San Francisco. The many cultural differences made a big impression on him.

Fukuzawa_Yukichi_with_the_girl_of_the_photo_studio

Fukuzawa with Alice Theodora, the daughter of the photographer, in San Francisco.

Upon his return five months later, he became an offical translator for the Tokugawa shogunate. His first publication was an English-Japanese dictionary, which was actually a translation from a English-Chinese dictionary he bought in America. From that moment on, he changed the subject of his classes from English to Dutch and translated several English works. Fukuzawa embarked on (the first) Embassy mission in 1862, this time via Hong kong and Singapore to France, England, The Netherlands, Germany, Portugal and Russia. He wrote down his experiences abroad in “Things Western” seiyō jijō 西洋事情, a work of ten volumes that soon became a best-seller. In 1868, Fukuzawa changed the name of his school to Keiō Gijuku 慶應義塾, where he taught mainly political economy. He also brought in foreign professors. Later, Keiō Gijuku would become a university in 1889, the forerunner of today’s Keiō University.

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Keio University, then and now.

fukuzawa-yukichi_Fukuzawa authored several works of educational interest, among which An Encouragement of Learning (gakumon no susume 学問のすすめ) is considered one of his most inspiring works. He stressed the importance of education for everyone, and advocated gender equality. Fukuzawa also published critical works and essays, like An Outline of a Theory of Civilization (bunmeiron no gairyaku 文明論之概略) in 1875. As a thinker, Fukuzawa believed that knowledge about the West was essential for the development of a modern Japan and the resistance to European imperialism. Therefor, he introduced many aspects about Western society, like the banking system, postal services, conscription laws, hospitals, electoral systems, parliaments and so on. He established his own newspaper Current Events (Jiji Shinpō 時事新報) in 1882. Thanks to this widely read newspaper, Japanese common people got familiar with the idea of a reformation and modernization in Japan. In 1898, Fukuzawa collapsed due to a cerebral apoplexy. Although he recovered, it occurred again three years later, and eventually led to his death in 1901.

Fun Fact Fukuzawa invented a new letter combination to write the “v”-sound, foreign to the Japanese language. Just like today, it is written as an “u” with two dashes ヴ. So it is thanks to Fukuzawa that I can write my very Flemish name in Japanese.

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On the other side of a “Yukichi” we see the Phoenix statue of the  Byōdō-in 平等院 in Uji. This mythological bird represents peace and is the symbol of the imperial household. The Byōdō-in is one of the most famous Buddhist temples in Japan. It was designed as an earthly reflection of the Pure Land Paradise. The main hall is nicknamed Hōō-dō 鳳凰堂 (“Phoenix Hall”) and is actually depicted on the reverse side of a 10 Yen coin. I visited the Byōdō-in during last summer and it certainly is a splendid temple. Can you spot the two phoenixes?

byodoin hoodo

phoenix

References Keiō University, Wikipedia Eng, Wikipedia Jp, Fukuzawa, Yukichi, and Eiichi Kiyooka. The Autobiography of Yukichi Fukuzawa. New York: Columbia University Press, 2007.[Google Books]

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3 thoughts on “Money Matters (2)

  1. Pingback: UNESCO World Heritage in Japan | nippaku

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