Haiku with a Cup of Tea

haikuwithacupoftea nippakutext.jpg

First of all, I must admit that I am not a huge haiku fan: I love reading poetry, but I prefer long poems, just like I usually read thick books. That being said, from time to time I enjoy browsing through some haiku collections. Last year I received the Dutch translation of Classic Haiku, a compilation of some of the most famous haiku categorized by master. Among these names, my favorite haiku writer is definitely Kobayashi Yatarō (1763-1828), known by his pen name Issa 一茶. Issa literally means “one (cup of) tea” and refers to the serenity of the Japanese tea tradition 茶道 (sadō) but also to the emptiness of life, as can be observed in the disappearing froth on a cup of matcha tea. Throughout this post, I will visually serve you five haiku by Issa and five types of Japanese tea. Enjoy!


genmaicha utsukushiya nippaku 1

Issa wrote more than 20,000 haiku. His style is characterized by a simplicity and childish admiration for the outside world. “Lower” creatures such as flies, frogs, snails etc. are often the topic of his poems, in contrast to more traditional kigo 季語 (seasonal words) other famous haiku masters employ. Issa introduces the sentimentality and banality of everyday life into his poetry.

jasminetea muddy claws nippaku

Issa was not exactly a lucky man. When his mother died, he was forced by his “evil stepmother” to leave the house, his first two wives and all of his children died, and when he at last managed to secure a part of his family’s property, his house burnt down. Shortly after that, he died in the storehouse next to the house that had survived the fire. Despite his misery, Issa succeeds in capturing the beauty of nature with empathy for every living being. He also often mixes in personal feeling. Therefore, his poetry is considered to be more “humane”.

matcha dragonfly nippaku

Issa’s poetry is often humorous, and in many cases verging on satire. He uses a colloquial tone, plain language and sometimes local dialects. This results in very down-to-earth poetry that is accessible to all kinds of readers.

sencha karasu tilling field nippaku

Similar to Bashō a century before, Issa was the wandering type of poet. After having studied the art of haiku under Nirokuan Chikua in Edo, he became a Buddhist priest and travelled around Japan for about ten years. Apparently, Issa looked like a beggar, was extremely poor and lived off the earnings of others. His situation is reflected in  humorous self-portraits and haiku mocking his own condition. He wrote from the perspective of people at the bottom of society and created a new poetic style that differed greatly from previous haiku masters.

milky oolong milkyway nippaku

Facts for Fun

  • On hot days in Japan, everybody drinks chilled tea and I loved to check out new kinds of tea during my time spent there. My favorite cold tea is jūrokucha 十六茶, a mix of sixteen different teas (the more the better!), followed by hōjicha ほうじ茶 (roasted green tea) and iced barley tea (mugicha 麦茶). The last one is offered for free in many shops. [List of Japanese teas here.] When it is hot in Belgium, I usually make lots of Oolong tea and put it in the fridge. So refreshing!

References

  • Lowenstein, Tom, John Cleare, and Susanne Castermans-Nelleke. Klassieke haiku’s: de mooiste Japanse poëzie van Bashō, Buson, Issa, Shiki en hun navolgers. Kerkdriel: Librero, 2015.
  • Ueda, Makoto, and Issa Kobayashi. Dew on the Grass: The Life and Poetry of Kobayashi Issa. Brill’s Japanese Studies Library, v. 20. Leiden ; Boston: Brill, 2004.
  • Database Issa poetry [in Japanese]
  • Haikuguy [in English]
  • All translations and pictures are mine. For the translations of the Japanese haiku I chose to stick to the 5-7-5 rule.
teacollectionnippaku

Part of my tea collection: matcha, genmaicha, jasmine tea, Chinese milky oolong tea and sencha.

Tea Time at Twelve O’Clock

A Chinese friend told me: “When I lunched for the first time in Belgium, I was astonished atmatcha+chopsticks the drinks people had with their meal. Although the food is warm, they have ice-cold water or soft drinks. In Eastern Asia, it’s normal that you drink warm things, like tea, to match your meal.”

I thought it well worth the effort to write a post about it. Western food isn’t particularly spicy or sour. Neither is the weather unbearably hot. So why don’t we have warm drinks?

In Japanese restaurants, green tea (cha茶) is served with the meal, usually for free. This is not best quality tea, but you can drink as much as you want. So you only have to pay for your food. I remember that I had free tea too in a Japanese restaurant in Shanghai.

Tea became the standard drink in the Edo period (1603 – 1868) and reached its most sophisticated form in the tea ceremony (chadō 茶道). Japanese traditionally drink tea with every meal, and even between the meals. But with the arrival of alternatives like coffee, its popularity has decreased. Now, cold green tea in plastic bottles and canned hot tea are available in Japan’s enormously amount of vending machines.

Are tea-with-meal-drinkers healthier? My parents would say yes. As physiotherapists, they always told me not to drink ice-cold water during the summer. Adjusting the temperature of your drink to your meal would lower the risk of thermal shock in the oropharyngeal cavity. In other words, you can compare it to a dive in an ice-cold pool on a hot day. Your blood flow gets disturbed and vessels will react, with the possibility of a cardiac arrest as result. Of course this is in extreme situations, but you want to take care of your body, don’t you? So, from now on you can take your tea time at twelve o’clock.

Facts for Fun

– The Japanese word for brown is chairo (茶色), “color of tea”. That’s quite surprising because normally Japanese tea is green. On this blog you find two possible explanations.

– The tea variety used in the tea ceremony is maccha/matcha (抹茶). Nowadays it is known as a healing drink full of antioxidants.

References

– specialists confirming my parents’ theory: Pravda and Hystersisters